Pd Nalog Blank Skachat
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Pd Nalog Blank Skachat
So let's create something! Go to the Put Menu and select Object. By doing that Pd will automatically change to Edit Mode, and the mouse will carry a dotted box around. Click somewhere in the patch to put it there, and then write "osc 440", and after that click somewhere blank on the patch to instantiate the object. If everything goes well, you will have a box just like this one:
dac is the object in Pd that represents your actual speakers, DAC means Digital to Analog Converter, so its function is to send the digital signal (from pd) to your audio interface (where the true dac exists and then sends the signal for the speakers).
If instead of right clicking on a box (being an object or not) you right click on any blank space on the patch, the menu will also open with a help entry, but clicking on this help will show you the List of Objects! This list has all the objects available in pd-vanilla, so you can go from there to their helpfiles and discover new objects to use!
Ifosfamide (IFS) is a DNA-alkylating agent and a structural analog of cyclophosphamide. It acts as a prodrug, its metabolism occurring mainly through CYP 3A4 and CYP 2B6 enzymes, which are present predominantly in the hepatocytes [7, 8]. IFS crosslinks DNA strands and inhibits DNA replication and ultimately leads to apoptosis due to activation of caspases in the cells. IFS is indicated as a mainline treatment for OS and delivered as an intravenous infusion . A variety of nanoparticle-based delivery systems have been developed for the delivery of anticancer drugs. Self-assembled polymeric nanoparticles, have received increased attention for their potential application in biotechnology and medicine, especially as a drug delivery carrier in cancer therapeutics . These amphiphilic nanoparticles usually have a hydrophobic core shielded by a hydrophilic shell when present in the aqueous environment. The hydrophobic core involves in the drug incorporation and the outer hydrophilic shell prevents the delivery system against reticuloendothelial system (RES) . The polymeric self-assembled nanoparticles offer some unique advantages including core-shell morphology, high loading capacity, site-specific drug delivery, and avoids unwanted side effects of administered drug. Moreover, micelles remain stable in blood circulation for prolonged period of time and could avail enhanced permeability and retention effect (EPR) based passive targeting [12, 13].
Thus far, the main aim of this study was to prepare ifosfamide-loaded PLGA-dextran polymeric nanoparticles for the treatment of osteosarcoma (OS). We hypothesized that IFS incorporation in a nanocarrier would increase its therapeutic effect due to the controlled release and defined properties. The dynamic light scattering analysis and morphology analysis were carried out to optimize the formulations. The biocompatible nature of blank nanoparticles (NP) and cytotoxic effect of IFS-loaded NP was evaluated in MG63 and Saos-2 osteosarcoma cells via MTT assay. The apoptotic effect of free drug and IFS-loaded NP was studied means of PARP and caspase-3, which are typical apoptotic markers.
The cancer cells were treated with blank NP with different concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 100 μg/mL (Fig. 3a, b). The results clearly showed that synthesized polymers were highly biocompatible and showed a cell viability of more than 90 % throughout all the concentrations tested. Fluorescent images of MG63 cells showed that cells maintained their morphology when incubated with blank NP (Fig. 3c). The polymeric carrier itself did not contribute to cytotoxicity is very advantageous.
One of the most important criteria for successful cancer targeting is the development of a biocompatible and safe nanoparticulate system. The biocompatibility of PLGA-dextran blank NP was studied in MG63 and Saos-2 osteosarcoma cancer cells. The results clearly showed that synthesized polymers were highly biocompatible and showe